Motorway’s bumper growth fuelled further by appreciation of used cars

  • Massive change is underway in the global used car industry.  New car sales are at an all-time low, while used car demand is at an all-time peak
  • Used cars appreciated by 30% in September 2021 vs. September 2020
  • Values have been steadily increasing month-on-month, with the biggest jump in June (+16%) 
  • Motorway is a marketplace connecting consumers selling their car with professional car dealers acquiring stock – getting the best possible deal for both parties, and 100% online
  • Motorway has seen +300% YOY growth after record £306m sales in Q3 2021
  • Company is now on a run-rate to deliver over $2bn in completed sales over the next year

Investing in used cars could soon be a better bet than investing in your pension. With prices for a second hand car surging to unprecedented levels, the value of your car is currently rising every time you take it for a spin. 

Whereas cars typically depreciate as soon as they leave the forecourt, this year has seen a complete reversal in used car values.  Second-hand vehicles have skyrocketed in the last nine months, with the average value of vehicles soaring by over 30% YoY, according to Motorway, the UK’s fastest-growing way to sell your car.  

While the pandemic led to record numbers of consumers looking to buy or upgrade cars with the money they hadn’t spent on holidays or entertainment, the shortage of new cars coming to market – as a result of the semiconductor supply crisis – has turned consumers to the used car market instead. But the new car shortage has had a knock-on effect on used cars too – less new cars also means less used cars available too.  Coupled with a massive increase in consumer demand, the used car market that was already heating up, has turned red hot and prices for used cars are now going sky high. 

Motorway’s growth 

With the pandemic fueling a fundamental behavioural change in both dealers and consumers to buy and sell cars online, both groups have turned to Motorway.  At the same time, consumer demand for a simple, fast and online way to sell their car is rising month-on-month.  As a result,  Motorway has seen a four-fold YoY surge in sales and +65% growth in Q3 sales versus Q2 this year. 

The company recorded a +300% uplift in third-quarter sales to £306 million compared with £78 million last year. Between July and September this year, Motorway sold 20,076 cars.  This accelerated growth has continued, with Motorway now selling well over 8,000 cars a month, with £140m cars sold in September alone.  Over 100,000 used cars have been sold on Motorway since launch, with a new sale now agreed every five minutes.

This recent surge in sales puts Motorway on a run-rate to deliver over $2bn in completed sales over the next year, making it one of the world’s fastest growing digital automotive marketplaces.

The new way to sell your car 

Motorway helps consumers to sell their car for up to £1,000 more from the comfort of home. It’s simple, fast and free – a car can be profiled and uploaded onto the Motorway website using only a smartphone. Over 3,000 professional car dealers can then bid for the vehicle in a daily online auction, with the highest offer winning the car. Their car is then collected for free by the winning dealer in as little as 24 hours. 

Cutting out the middlemen and moving the whole process online, Motorway removes the hassle and the haggle, helping car sellers and car dealers get a better deal fast, and all entirely remotely.

Motorway data on appreciation of used cars comparing Q3 2021 with Q3 2020

Exclusive data from Motorway sales reveals the month-on-month increases in the average value of vehicles sold on Motorway since September 2020 and a breakdown of prices achieved by popular models:

  • A Porsche Cayman has steadily increased by +23%, going for £5,480 more than Q3 2020
  • At the other end of the scale, a Ford Focus has appreciated by over +34%, selling for £3,346 more than last year. 
  • Looking at the used EV market, a Tesla Model S sold for +14% higher than it went for last year
  • Even at the cheaper end of the market, pieces have seen huge increases – a Vauxhall Agila went for £2,300, +46% higher than Q3 2020 
  • An Aston Martin Vanquish rose by +38% just sitting in the driveway during lockdown
porsche cayman used car valuation
The Porsche Cayman was one model that saw extreme appreciation on Motorway through 2021

Table 1: Month-on-month increases in the average value of vehicles sold on the platform since September 2020

MonthAvg Value% +/- v. Sept 2020£ +/-
2020 vs. 2021 used car average valuations

Table 2: A breakdown of prices achieved by popular models comparing Q3 2021 with Q3 2020

Q321 v. Q320
MakeModelQ320Q321Q320 v. 21 (%)Q320 v. 21 (£)
TeslaModel S£42,718£48,53113.61%£5,813
Land RoverDiscovery£24,392£28,80018.07%£4,408
Aston MartinVanquish£61,166£84,00037.33%£22,834
2020 vs. 2021 used car model average valuations

Used diesel car prices are down over -10% since the start of 2017, as petrol car prices rise

  • Valuations of used diesel cars, five years old or less, fell £1,478 (-10.3%) on average between the start of 2017 and the end of 2018
  • Equivalent petrol car prices were up £895 (+10%) across the same period – suggesting a major shift in demand from diesel to petrol fuelled vehicles
  • Most major car brands (including Ford, VW & Vauxhall) saw diesel prices drop – biggest falls seen with Land Rover, BMW & Audi
  • Data based on a sample of 130,000 valuations of up-to-5 year old diesel and petrol cars on in 2017 and 2018

London, 29th January 2019 – The average price of a used diesel car fell by -10.3% between Q1 2017 and Q4 2018. Diesel car values dropped 5% through 2017, on the back of consistent negative news about the fuel, and new data shows that slump continued through 2018 at a near-identical rate.

The analysis from car buying comparison website also shows equivalent used petrol prices increasing +10% between Q1 2017 and Q4 2018, suggesting a fundamental change in mass consumer sentiment away from diesel towards petrol. This is now a clear trend over two years that shows no signs of changing.

Used diesel cars have seen a sustained drop in average prices since January 2017. The trend is different with petrol, where prices have risen analysed two years of valuations for more than 130,000 used cars valued on its website, which aggregates live offers from popular online car buying websites and used car dealers. The study looked at trends over time for cars under five years old across all brands, and the two major fuel types – diesel and petrol.

The following table shows average quarterly prices of used diesel and petrol cars from Q1 2017 to Q4 2018:

2017 & 2018 used car valuations – diesel & petrol
Vehicles less than 5 years old

Period Diesel Petrol
2017 Q1 £14,327 £8,912
2017 Q2 £13,799 £8,979
2017 Q3 £14,338 £9,668
2017 Q4 £13,605 £9,765
2018 Q1 £13,608 £9,611
2018 Q2 £13,073 £9,386
2018 Q3 £12,622 £9,370
2018 Q4 £12,849 £9,807
Q1 ’17 to Q4 ’18 Change -10.31% 10.04%

Source:, Jan 2019

As the data shows, diesel prices fell -5% a year in both 2017 and 2018 – a total of -10.3% over the two-year period, representing a consistent downward trend. The average diesel value in Q1 2017 was £14,327, dropping to £13,605 by Q4 2017, and £12,849 a year later – a fall of £1,478 for the average used diesel.

Meanwhile the average petrol price went up +10% from £8,912 in Q1 2017 to £9,807 by Q4 2018, an increase of £895 over the same period of the study.

Car makes also analysed diesel and petrol valuation data for individual car makes. The research revealed significant differences in how different brands have changed over the past 12 months and two years.

Looking at the most popular makes valued during 2017 and 2018, most major car brands including Ford, Mercedes and Volkswagen saw diesel price drops, with the biggest falls seen with Land Rover, BMW, Vauxhall & Audi.

The average price of a used BMW diesel car has slumped by –16.1% since the start of 2017, falling almost £3,000 from £17,269 in Q1 2017 to £14,441 in Q4 2018. This compares with average prices of BMW petrol variants which have remained steady (falling just –0.6%) over the same period. While the average price of a diesel Audi has fallen –14.3% since the beginning of 2017, compared to a +8.4% increase in price for the petrol variants.

The average price of a Land Rover – almost all of which are diesel-powered – was down more than £6,000 from £30,493 to £24,399 between Q1 2017 and Q4 2018 (a fall of -20%).

The following table shows average used diesel and petrol car values for popular makes of car, comparing Q1 2017, Q4 2017, and Q1 2018:A

Average valuations for diesel & petrol variants

Popular brands – change 2017 – 2018

Diesel Models Q1 ’17 Q4 ’17 Q4 ’18 Change
Audi £17,195 £15,933 £14,740 -14.30%
BMW £17,269 £15,057 £14,481 -16.10%
Ford £10,153 £9,666 £9,447 -7.00%
Hyundai £9,773 £9,386 £9,414 -3.70%
Land Rover* £30,493 £28,395 £24,399 -20.00%
Mercedes £17,346 £16,805 £15,351 -11.50%
Nissan £11,110 £9,863 £9,905 -10.80%
Peugeot £7,353 £6,953 £7,145 -2.80%
Vauxhall £8,064 £7,038 £6,860 -14.90%
Volkswagen  £12,437 £11,426 £11,087 -10.90%
Petrol Models Q1 ’17 Q4 ’17 Q4 ’18 Change
Audi £16,467 £17,444 £17,854 8.40%
BMW £18,347 £18,940 £18,245 -0.60%
Ford £7,784 £8,711 £7,967 2.30%
Hyundai £5,078 £5,870 £5,708 12.40%
Land Rover*  
Mercedes £22,537 £21,244 £20,924 -7.20%
Nissan £8,431 £9,347 £9,202 9.20%
Peugeot £5,625 £5,998 £5,676 0.90%
Vauxhall £6,051 £5,714 £5,628 -7.00%
Volkswagen  £10,270 £9,693 £10,053 -2.10%

* Land Rover vehicle valuations are 97% diesel from 2017-2018

Source:, Jan 2019

Alex Buttle, director of car buying comparison website comments:

“It’s been a tough couple of years for diesel owners. Having been penalised by the Government and ripped apart by the press, diesel prices slumped in 2017. Although we saw early signs of resilience in the first half of 2018, any recovery has been undone recently by worsening consumer sentiment towards diesel. This followed the announcement of wider, more punitive emission zones in London and more rigorous emissions testing for all cars later in the year.

“Increasingly, people looking to buy a used car are deciding on fuel type before choosing what make and model they want to purchase. More people are opting for petrol and diesels are suffering.  Despite newer Euro-6 diesel engines now matching many petrol equivalents for emission levels, consumer sentiment has simply moved away from diesel – possibly forever.

“Perhaps the most interesting trend was used diesel Land Rovers dropping in price by a massive -20% over two years. This suggests they are losing their appeal at the expensive end of the used car market, as more affluent buyers are opting for other options from the likes of Audi, BMW, Volvo and Mercedes – where petrol variants are showing comparatively buoyant valuations.

“But it’s not just with bigger, premium SUVs and 4x4s. Smaller, cheaper used diesels are seeing falling prices too. To add to its woes, Vauxhall has also suffered with a -14.9% average drop in used diesel prices. Meanwhile, most petrol variants of smaller cars across the market are increasing in price, unlike their diesel counterparts.

“Across the UK car market, diesel prices are struggling to maintain buoyancy and this long term trend could be irreversible. The outlook for diesel values into 2019 looks very bleak indeed. Is the era of the diesel gas guzzler over?”

Motorway service update

Updated 19/10/2020: All buyers on our platform are completing transactions in a contact-free way.

This post outlines how our service is affected by the current coronavirus situation, and what you can expect if you sign up to compare prices on our website at this time.

Motorway works with major online car buyers and thousands of individual dealerships around the UK to provide a range of instant offers for your car with a single search – helping you find your best deal as quickly as possible.

After the government’s announcement in March of restrictions on movement, much of the car industry stopped trading. These restrictions on movement have now lifted, and buyers and dealers are able to purchase vehicles again following social distancing guidelines.

All buyers on Motorway buy cars in a contact-free manner to keep sellers safe. You can read more about our guidelines for no-contact car selling here.

As well as online car buyers, our Premium Service is also purchasing cars and has been expanded to work with a broader range of vehicles. Using this service, we are able to profile your vehicle, and search for the highest offer from our nationwide network of over 1,500 dealers across the UK.

Some dealers are still closed, but most are now trading with online-only transactions and no-contact collection.

We will update this page regularly as our service changes and more buyers are enabled. Thank you for your patience. As always, our team are on hand to talk to you about the process at any point, and answer any questions.

Please continue to sign up on Motorway here or you can email our team with questions at any time.

Motorway restarts its daily online auctions and launches new no-contact transport service for dealers

Motorway, the UK’s fastest-growing marketplace for used cars, today resumes its service for private car sellers and dealers nationwide on its, having paused its daily auctions since the coronavirus lockdown was announced. 

Dealers looking to replenish their stock with premium used cars direct from private sellers will now be able to take part in Motorway’s daily auctions, with thousands of cars listed every month. 

In response to COVID-19, Motorway is also launching a new no-contact transport service that puts safety first – providing easy inspection, collection and delivery of cars to dealers in a fast and cost-effective way. 

Motorway was founded three years ago to help simplify the process of used car transactions, all online and without the traditional middlemen involved. The platform allows private car sellers to value and profile their car, and it is then listed in online dealer auctions running daily on its website. 

Motorway is now not just the fastest way to get a great deal, but also the safest. Instead of driving to auctions and coming into close contact with other people, Motorway’s transport service has been designed with the safety of dealers and transport partners in mind, keeping everyone safe and compliant with government regulations. 

To celebrate the launch of its new transport service and help its dealers get back in business, Motorway is offering two free vehicle collections for every dealer on the platform – worth over £500.

Tom Leathes, CEO of Motorway, says:

“We’re in unprecedented times in the used car industry. As everyone looks to start trading again after the lockdown, we have adapted our service to ensure Motorway is the best possible platform for dealers to buy the best cars quickly, cost-effectively and safely.

We know that dealers will now be sourcing more of their stock online, rather than driving to auctions. And to help dealers with that transition, we’re now offering every dealer – whether existing or new to Motorway – free transportation for their first two purchases on the platform.

Having been an online-only service since we launched in 2017, Motorway is uniquely positioned to support dealers in more efficient stock-acquisition processes as we enter a new era of technology-enabled trading.”

The free transport offer will run from May 11 2020 and will be valid for all dealers until 30 June 2020. All collections carried out by Motorway’s transport service will be completed in accordance with Motorway’s contact-free code of conduct, which includes guidelines on how to inspect, collect and purchase cars safely and contact-free.

Motorway – Used Car Product Of The Year 2019

We are extremely proud to announce that Motorway was awarded ‘highly commended’ for the ‘Used Car Product of the Year’ award at the CarDealer Used Car Awards 2019 this week.

The awards were presented at The Brewery, London by Mike Brewer, star of Discovery Channel TV show Wheeler Dealers on Monday 25th November.

Motorway Pro, Used Car Product Of The Year 2019 - Highly commended
Motorway for dealers, Used Car Product Of The Year 2019 – Highly commended

Motorway started in 2017 with a big vision: build a better car market for everyone. Earlier this year we launched Motorway foe dealers, helping quality dealers get instant access to the best used car stock, direct from private sellers, without the middlemen.

It’s fantastic to be awarded by one of the UK’s top motor trade publications and we are thrilled to be recognised in the motor industry for the progress we’ve made in such a short period of time.

We have some amazing new features to release in coming months that’ll make using Motorway easier and more efficient than ever. We can’t wait for 2020.

Thank you to all our buying partners for being part of Motorway and making it what it is.

Congrats to all the winners!

World Cup 2018: Only 179 Ladas on the road

With the World Cup due to kick off in Moscow on Thursday (14th June), car buying comparison website thought it would be fun take a look at one of Russia’s greatest exports; not vodka, not caviar, not dolls, but the car once the butt of jokes about its reliability – the Lada.

The last time England failed to qualify for the World Cup in 1994, there were 134,297 Russian-built Ladas, registered to drive on UK roads. Today, the number has dwindled by 99.9% to 179. Between 1994 and 2005 – just over 10 years – the number of licensed Ladas fell from more than 134,000 to less than 3,000, a monumental fall from grace.

The Lada, was first built in the Soviet Union in 1970 by the Russian car giant AvtoVAZ. It spawned a thousand playground jokes but ended up selling more than 20 million worldwide. The VAZ-2101 was modelled on the 1966 Fiat 124 saloon and despite its boxy look and drab colours, it proved extremely popular. Almost two-thirds of Ladas went on to be sold outside Russia, with more than 300,000 selling in Britain between 1977 and 1997.

lads on UK roads 2018
The loveable Lada. Only 179 of these once-derided vehicles remain on UK roads. Collectable? You betcha!

So, where did they all go? Although still a popular sight in Russia, the Lada is now largely extinct on British roads. Sales hit the skids in the UK when tighter carbon emissions standards meant many Ladas didn’t match up to more rigorous green requirements.

But claims ‘the Lada is empty’ may be a little premature since this piece of motoring history has now taken on classic car status. And for the first time since the height of its popularity in the 1990s, the number of licensed Ladas on UK roads has actually started to rise, albeit from a very low base.

At the beginning of 2017, the number of licensed Ladas on UK roads stood at 165. That had increased to 179 by the start of 2018. And with 679 Ladas registered as ‘off the road’, there appears to be a lot of Lada owners storing their rare models away under lock and key, hoping to see values boom, as has happened with many other classic motors from the 1970s, 80s and 90s.

Alex Buttle, director of car buying comparison website comments: “The Lada is not quite empty, but with fewer than 200 now eligible to drive on UK roads it has become seriously rare. And with the eyes of the world on Russia for the next few months, has the Lada’s time come? Nostalgia for Ladas is growing and scarcity will drive up prices. Savvy classic car buyers should consider getting one while they still can.”

The cars paying the highest road tax in 2018

  • The Lamborghini Aventador has the highest level of CO2 emissions at 370 g/km
  • 74 car models over 14 makes will pay the top road tax rate of £2,070
  • Top 10 gas guzzlers are European supercars, but there are also three American makes – Cadillac, Chevrolet and Corvette – with models in the top VED band
  • Average price of cars that pay the highest first year VED rate is £160,307

From this month (April 2018), Britain’s highest polluting cars will be charged £2,070 road tax in the first year of registration. But what cars are actually in the top road tax band? We looked into the UK’s top gas guzzlers, and they’re all supercars. These cars are in the top vehicle excise duty (VED) band because they emit more than 255g of CO2 per kilometre*.

Take the Lamborghini Aventador, popular with Premiership footballers, but not a friend of the environment, as the 6.5 Litre V12 model spews out 370g of CO2 per kilometre.

Lamborghini Aventador - the car with the highest road tax 2018
The Lamborghini Aventador, the car with the unenviable status as the UK’s most polluting, highly taxed vehicle in 2018

Meanwhile there are 13 Aston Martin models in the top road tax band; making these stylish motors some of the thirstiest gas guzzlers on our roads.

According to analysis by on CO2 emission rates, there are 74 models across 14 car makes (excluding rare supercars such as the Bugatti Veyron) in the highest VED band for emissions. While the top 10 gas guzzlers are European supercars, three American makes – Cadillac, Corvette and Chevrolet – have models in the top VED band. And apart from the Corvette Z06 Coupe 6.2 V8, the other models aren’t supercars.

In the top 10 list of gas guzzlers, the Lamborghini Aventador is the most polluting car, closely followed by the Bentley Continental GTC Supersports, which emits 362g of CO2 per km, and the Maserati GranTurismo 4.7 litre V8, 360g of CO2/km.

Although these cars will be charged the highest amount of road tax in the first year, it’s doubtful the owners of these cars will feel too out of pocket, as the average on-the-road price of cars in the top VED band is £160,307. For example, the Rolls Royce Dawn 6.6 litre V12 Black Badge, emits one of the highest levels of CO2/km at 337g, and will set you back £312,535.

The following table reveals the Top 10 cars in the highest VED band, that have the highest CO2 emission levels:

Road tax - most expensive in 2018
Cars facing the highest road tax (VED) in 2018

Alex Buttle, director of car buying comparison website comments:

“It’s quite shocking that the most polluting new supercars in our research emit nearly 400g of CO2 per km, which to put that in context is four times that of an average family car like the new Volvo XC40 which emits around 130g/km. But let’s face it, no-one buys one of these beefy gas guzzlers for their fuel efficiency or environmental credentials.

“And with the worst polluters being Lambos, Bentleys and Ferraris which are most popular amongst the super-rich, the government’s highest road tax fee of £2,070 is unlikely to put any kind of dent in their owner’s wallet.

“Which does beg the question, when the average purchase price of these cars is more than £160,000, why isn’t the VED rate at the top level even higher? With some of these cars costing more than a small house in some parts of the UK, could VED be means tested?”

* Data on CO2 emissions from

Press release: Electri-Cities! UK’s most ‘Electric Car Friendly’ towns revealed

● 52% of car owners say they don’t expect to switch to an electric car soon because of the UK’s inadequate charging infrastructure^
● Poole, Dorset has the UK’s highest percentage of properties with private off-street parking, offering more electric car home charging opportunities
● London has the lowest percentage of properties with private off-street parking, meaning less potential for home charging points

Poole, in Dorset, is the most electric car-friendly town in the UK, while London, not surprisingly, is the least friendly, according to research into home car charging by, the car buying comparison website.

Analysing the towns and cities that are best placed to create a substantial home charging network, assessed the percentage of homes currently on the market in major towns and cities with private, off-street parking, enabling households to easily install an electric charge point and power up their vehicles at home.

electric car charging in the UK
The problem of electric car charging is perhaps the biggest barrier to ownership in the UK used new properties for sale data* as a gauge of total and type of housing stock, to reveal the areas with the biggest opportunities and challenges for home charging.

The Government has said it wants all petrol and diesel cars off UK roads by 2040 to be replaced by more environmentally-friendly electric cars. For that to happen, motorists need to be able to charge their electric vehicles easily and cheaply. However, a recent electric car survey of car owners by revealed that more than half (52%) said they weren’t planning to switch to electric any time soon because of the UK’s inadequate charging infrastructure^.’s home charging research revealed that Poole has the highest percentage of current properties for sale with off-street parking. In Poole, more than 9 in 10 properties on the market have some form of private parking, so the Dorset town is perfectly set up to create a home charging network over the next 10-15 years. Similarly, Solihull and Chelmsford have more than 90% of current properties on the market with off-street parking.

This is in stark contrast to London, where less than half (48.6%) of properties on the market have off-street parking available. This presents a headache for residents who currently have to drive to a public charging points and local councils who will need to build more shared charging units to cope with demand. Comparing boroughs, 83.7% of properties for sale in Havering have off-street parking, while only 19.3% in Islington do.

Further research by also reveals that 80.7% of properties for sale in London are flats or terraced houses. Although many have off-street parking, that doesn’t mean electric charging points can be installed, as it’s likely the freeholder will own the land and the flat owner will have to get their permission – and potentially pay a pricey levy.

The problem is even more severe in some boroughs. research reveals in a third of London boroughs, 95% of housing stock is made up of terraced houses and flats, which will either have no private parking, shared parking, or allocated bay parking, where the land is not owned by the homeowner.

The challenge facing the Government is ensuring that electric car charging infrastructure can handle the 2040 switch over to electric and hybrid vehicles. And a vital component of this network will be home charging, as many people will want the option of leaving their cars charging overnight at home, not on the street.

But that in itself creates its own problem, as a large number of properties in the UK, particularly terraced houses and flats, won’t have driveways or off-street parking, or if they do, there will need to be multiple charging points installed for all flats to use at considerable cost.

The following table shows the most electric car friendly UK towns and cities, with the highest percentage of properties with private, off-street parking:

electric car friendly towns
The towns with the most potential for electric car charging points

The following table shows the least electric car friendly UK towns and cities, with the lowest percentage of properties with private, off-street parking:

least electric car friendly towns
The UK’s least electric car friendly towns

The following table shows the London boroughs with the highest and lowest percentage of properties with private, off-street parking:

% of properties for with off-street parking by borough
London boroughs, not all great for electric car charging

Alex Buttle, director of car buying comparison website comments:

“The physical shape of Britain’s housing stock could put a spanner in the works of the Government’s electric switch over plans. Although many car owners can expect to have access to on-street charging stations, there’s no guarantee there will be enough to go around.

“Most people will want the convenience of charging their car at home rather than having to walk to a main road to pick up their vehicle. Home charging is usually fine if you have a detached or semi-detached house with a driveway, but what about the millions of people who live in flats and terraced houses with no private, off-street parking?

“As the country moves closer to the 2040 Government deadline proposed for a UK-wide diesel and petrol vehicle ban, the need for an electric car charging infrastructure becomes ever-more critical. We are talking about more than 30 million new power-hungry electric cars on the road by then if the switch over happens as expected.

“The big question that needs to be answered is how will most people be able to charge their vehicles at home? In some towns, the type of property stock will make it a lot easier to create a home charging infrastructure, but the challenge will be in urban areas with a high density of flats such as London, where off-street parking is limited.

“If the UK needs more on-street charging stations, that is a cost that cash-strapped councils will need to meet. Will there really be enough funds available to power a shared charging network for 30 million cars by 2040?”

Data and methodology

^In February 2018,’s own research suggested 52% of people do not expect to switch to electric because of the UK’s inadequate charging structure
* used publicly available property data for this research. Data was aggregated by looking at a number of market-leading property websites